Friday, January 28, 2011
Migraine is a debilitating condition characterized by moderate to severe headaches,and nausea,about 3 times more common in women than men.The word migraine was borrowed from Old French migraigne(originally as "megrim,"but respelled in 1777 on a contemporary French model).The French term derived from a vulger pronunciation of the Late Latin word hemicrania,itself based on Greek hemikrania,from Greek roots for "half" and "skull."The typical migraine headache is unilateral pain(affecting one half of the head)and pulsating in nature,lasting from 4 to 72 hours;symptoms include nausea,vomiting,photophobia(increased sensitivity to light),phonophobia(increased sensitivity to sound),and is aggravated by routine activity.Approximately one-third of people who suffer from migraine headaches perceive an aura-unusual visual,olfactory,or other sensory experiences that are a sign that the migraine will soon occur.Initial treatment is with analgesics for the headache,an antiemetic for the nausea,and the avoidance of triggering conditions.The cause of migraine headache is unknown;the most common theory is a disorder of the serotonergic control system.Studies of twins indicate a 60 to 65 percent genetic influence upon their propensity to develop migraine headache.Moreover,fluctuating hormone levels indicate a migraine relation:75 percent of adult patients are women,although migraine affects approximately equal numbers of prepubescent boys and girls;propensity to migraine headache is known to disappear during pregnancy,although in some women migraines may become more frequent during pregnancy.
Thursday, January 20, 2011
Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated.It is the opposite of hypotension.It is classified as either primary (essential) or secondary.About 90-95% of cases are termed "primary hypertension",which refers to high blood pressure for which no medical cause by other conditions that effect the kidneys,arteries,heart,or endocrine system.Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for stroke,myocardial infarction,heart failure and arterial aneurysm,and is a leading cause of chronic kidney failure.Moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy.Dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control and decrease the risk of associated health complication,although drug treatment may prove necessary in patients for whom lifestyle changes prove ineffective or insufficient.
Friday, January 7, 2011
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts,behaviour,feelings and physical well-being.Depressed people may feel sad,anxious,empty,hopeless,worthless,guilty,irritable,or restless.They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable,experience overeating or loss of appetite,or problems concentrating,remembering details or making decisions;and may contemplate or attempt suicide.Insomnia,excessive sleeping,fatigue,loss of energy,or aches,pains or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may be present.
Tuesday, January 4, 2011
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting the liver,caused by the hepatitis c virus(HCV).The infection is often asymptomatic,but once established,chronic infection can progress to scarring of the liver(fibrosis),and advanced scarring (cirrhosis) which is generally apparent after many years.In some cases,those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure or other complications of cirrhosis,including liver cancer  or life threatening esophageal varices and gastric varices.The hepatitis c virus is spread by blood-to-blood contact.Most people have few,if any symptoms after the initial infection,yet the virus persists in the liver in about 85% of those infected.Persistent infection can be treated with medication,peginterferon and ribavirin being the standard-of-care therapy.51% are cured overall.Those who develop cirrhosis or liver cancer may require a liver transplant,and the virus universally recurs after transplantation.An estimated 270-300 milliion people worldwide are infected with hepititis c.Hepititis c is only known to cause disease in humans.No vaccine against hepititis c is currently available.The existence of hepititis c (originally "non-A non-B hepititis") was postulated in the 1970s and proven in 1989.It is one of five known hepititis virus: A,B,C,D,and E.